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Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Research Ethics

1. Ethics is the set of principles and guidelines that help us to uphold the things we value.
a. True
b. False

2. Which of the following is necessary in obtaining informed consent?
a.  A description of the statistical analyses that will be carried out
b.  A description of the purpose of the research
c.  A description of the reliability and validity of test instruments
d.  A list of publications that the researcher has had in the last ten years

3. Which of the following need(s) to be obtained when doing research with children?
a.   Informed consent from the parent or guardian
b.  Assent from the child if he or she is capable
c.  Informed consent from the child
d.  Both a and b

4. Which of the following is true about the use of deception in research?
a.  It should never be used 
b.  It can be used anytime
c.  If there is deception in a study, the participants may need to be debriefed
d.  The use of deception must be outweighed by other benefits of the study
e.  Both c and d are true

5. Which of the following generally cannot be done in qualitative studies conducted in the field?
a.  Getting informed consent
b.  Keeping participants from physical harm
c.  Maintaining consent forms
d.  Having full anonymity rather than just confidentiality 

6. What is the primary approach that is used by the IRB to assess the ethical acceptability of a research study?
a.  Utilitarianism
b.  Deontology
c.  Ethical skepticism
d.  Comparativeism

7. Which of the following approaches says that ethical issues should be judged on the basis of some universal code?
a. Deontological
b. Ethical skepticism
c. Utilitarianism

8 Which of the following is not an ethical guideline for conducting research with humans?
a. Getting informed consent of the participant
b. Telling participants they must continue until the study has been completed
c. Keeping participants’ identity anonymous
d. Telling participants they are free to withdraw at any time

9. Which of the three ethics approaches says research ethics should be a matter of the individual's conscience?
a. Deontological approach
b. Ethical skepticism
c. Utilitarianism
d. Ontological skepticism

10. ________ means that the participant's identity, although known to the researcher, is not revealed to anyone outside of the researcher and his or her staff.
a. Anonymity
b. Confidentiality

11. Which of the following is not true?
a. Misrepresenting and creating fraudulent data is dishonest
b. Misrepresenting data is very easy to detect
c. Misrepresenting data can be difficult to detect
d. Breaking confidentiality is not a problem

12. Ideally, the research participant's identity is not known to the researcher. This is called:
a. Anonymity
b. Confidentiality
c. Deception
d. Desensitizing

13. Which of the following approaches taken by people to resolve ethical issues is the primary approach used by the federal government and most professional organizations?
a. Deontological approach
b. Ethical skepticism
c. Utilitarianism
d. None of the above

14. What is it called when the participants are not revealed to any one but researcher and staff?
a. Confidentiality
b. Anonymity
c. Ethics
d. Discretion

15. Research participants must give what before they can participate in a study?
a. Guidelines
b. A commitment
c. Informed consent
d. Private information

16. There are three basic approaches that people tend to adopt when considering ethical issues in research. Which one of the following is not one of the approaches?
a. Ethical skepticism
b. Deontology
c. Ontology
d. Utilitarianism

17. Identify the term that refers to a poststudy interview in which all aspects of the study are revealed, reasons for the use of deception are given, and the participants’ questions are answered?
a. Desensitizing
b. Debriefing
c. Dehoaxing
d. Deploying

18. A set of principles to guide and assist researchers in deciding which goals are most important and in reconciling conflicting values when conducting research is called ____.
a. Research ethics
b. Deontological approach
c. Utilitarianism
d. None of the above

19. IRB is an acronym for which of the following?
a. Internal Review Board
b. Institutional Rating Board
c. Institutional Review Board
d. Internal Request Board

20. When it is necessary to engage in a good amount of deception to conduct a scientifically valid study, what procedure(s) should a researcher consider following?
a. Debriefing
b. Dehoaxing
c. Desensitizing
d. All of the above should be considered

21. The act of publishing the same data and results in more than one journal or publication refers to which of the following professional issues:
a. Partial publication
b. Duplicate publication
c. Deception
d. Full publication

22. Concerning "authorship" in educational research, intellectual ownership is predominantly a function of:
a.       Effort expended
b.      Creative contribution
c.       Professional position
d.      Level of higher education

23. Which term refers to publishing several articles from the data collected in one large study?
a. Duplicate publication
b. Partial publication
c. Triplicate publication
d. None of these

24. Which of the following is a right of each participant according to the AERA?
a. Deception
b. Utilitarianism
c. Freedom to withdraw
d. Participants have no rights

Answers:
1. a
2. b
3. d
4. e
5. d
6. a
7. a
8. b
9. b
10. b
11. b
12. a
13. c
14. a
15. c
16. c
17. b
18. a
19. c
20. d
21. b
22. b
23. b
24. c

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