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Tuesday, January 11, 2011

Qualitative Research

1. Which of the following is characteristic of qualitative research?
a.  Generalization to the population
b.  Random sampling
c.  Unique case orientation
d.  Standardized tests and measures

2. Phenomenology has its disciplinary origins in:
a.  Philosophy
b.  Anthropology
c.  Sociology
d.  Many disciplines

3. The primary data analysis approach in ethnography is:
a.  Open, axial, and selective coding
b.  Holistic description and search for cultural themes
c.  Cross-case analysis
d. Identifying essences of a phenomenon

4. The term used to describe suspending preconceptions and learned feelings about a phenomenon is called:
a.  Axial coding
b.  Design flexibility
c.  Bracketing
d.  Ethnography

5. A researcher studies how students who flunk out of high school experienced high
school. She found that it was common for such students to report that they felt like they had little control of their destiny. Her report that this lack of control was an invariant part of the students’ experiences suggests that lack of control is _______ of the “flunking out” experience.
a.  A narrative
b.  A grounded theory
c.  An essence
d.  A probabilistic cause

6. The specific cultural conventions or statements that people who share a culture hold to be true or false are called  ______.
a. Shared attitudes
b. Shared beliefs
c. Shared values
d. Norms

7. The written and unwritten rules that specify appropriate group behavior are called _____.
a. Shared attitudes
b. Shared beliefs
c. Shared values
d. Norms

8. Which of the following is not an advantage of studying multiple cases?
a. Multiple cases can be compared for similarities and differences
b. Multiple cases can more effectively test a theory than a single case
c. Generalizations about population are usually better when based on multiple cases.
d. Cost is lower and depth of analysis is easier when you study multiple cases in a
single research study

9. _____ are the standards of a culture about what is good or bad or desirable or undesirable.
a. Shared attitudes
b. Shared beliefs
c. Shared values
d. Norms

10. _________ is the study of human consciousness and individuals’ experience of some phenomenon.
a.       Phenomenology
b.      Ethnography
c.       Grounded theory
d.      Case study research

11. Which of the following is a characteristic of qualitative research?
a. Design flexibility
b. Inductive analysis
c. Context sensitivity
d. All of the above

12. ________ is a general methodology for developing theory that is based on data systematically gathered and analyzed.
a. Theory confirmation
b. Grounded theory
c. Theory deduction
d. All of the above

13. The final stage in grounded theory data analysis is called ___________.
a. Axial coding
b. Theoretical saturation
c. Constant comparative method
d. Selective coding

14. Which major characteristic of qualitative research refers to studying real world situations as they unfold naturally?
a.  Holistic perspective
b.  Naturalistic inquiry
c.  Dynamic systems
d.  Inductive analysis

15. In which qualitative research approach is the primary goal to gain access to individuals’ inner worlds of experience?
a.  Phenomenology
b.  Ethnography
c.  Grounded theory
d.  Case study

16. The type of qualitative research that describes the culture of a group of people is called ____.
a. Phenomenology
b. Grounded theory
c. Ethnography
d. Case study

17. The grounded theorist is finished analyzing data when theoretical saturation occurs.
a. True
b. False

18. In which of the following case study designs does the researcher focus her primary interest on understanding something more general than the particular case?
a. Intrinsic case study
b. Instrumental case study
c. Collective case study
d. It could be b or c

19. Which of the following phrases best describes "ethnocentrism"?
a.  Special words or terms used by the people in a group
b.  An external, social scientific view of reality
c.  The study of the cultural past of a group of people
d.  Judging people from a different culture according to the standards of your own culture

20. Which of the following is usually not a characteristic of qualitative research?
 a.  Design flexibility
 b.  Dynamic systems
 c.  Naturalistic inquiry
 d.  Deductive design

21. Which of the following involves the studying of multiple cases in one research study?
 a.  Intrinsic case study
 b.  Single case study
 c.  Instrumental case study
 d.  Collective case study

22. Which of the following does not apply to qualitative research?
a. Data are often words and pictures
b. Uses the inductive scientific method
c. Ends with a statistical report
d. Involves direct and personal contact with participants

23. The difference between ethnographic research and other types of qualitative research is that ethnographers specifically use  the concept of “culture” to help understand the results.
a. True
b. False

24. What term refers to the insider's perspective?
A. Ethnocentrism
B. Emic perspective
C. Etic perspective
D. Holism

25. In data analysis of the grounded theory approach, the step which focuses on the main idea, developing the story line, and finalizing the theory is called ________.
a. Open coding
b. Axial coding
c. Selective coding
d. Theoretical saturation

26. Which of the following is not one of the 4 major approaches to qualitative research.
a. Ethnography
b. Phenomenology
c. Case study
d. Grounded theory
e. Nonexperimental

27. In "phenomenology," a well written report will be highly descriptive of the participants’ experiences and will often elicit in the reader a feeling that they feel as though they are experiencing the phenomenon themselves.  This experience is called _____.
a. A phenomenal experience
b. A vicarious experience
c. A significant experience
d. A dream

28. You want to study a Native American group in New Mexico for a six month period to learn all you can about them so you can write a book about that particular tribe. You want the book to be accurate and authentic as well as informative and inspiring. What type of research will you likely be conducting when you get to New Mexico?
a. Ethnography
b. Phenomenology
c. Grounded theory
d. Collective case study

29. The emic perspective refers to an external, social scientific view of reality.
a. True
b. False

30. _________ is used to describe cultural scenes or the cultural characteristics of a group of people.
a.       Phenomenology
b.      Ethnography
c.       Grounded theory
d.      Instrumental case study

31. Terms such as “geeks,” “book worms,” “preps,” are known as _____ terms.
a. Emic
b. Etic

32. When a researcher identifies so completely with the group being studied that he or she can no longer remain objective you have what is called _________.
a. Culture shock
b. Going native
c. Regression
d. Cultural relativism

Answers:
1. c
2. a
3. b
4. c
5. c
6. b
7. d
8. d
9. c
10. a
11. d
12. b
13. d
14. b
15. a
16. c
17. a
18. d
19. d
20. d
21. d
22. c
23. a
24. b
25. c
26. e
27. b
28. a
29. b
30. b
31. a
32. b
 

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